Refractive Errors Symptoms, Causes And Method Of Diagnosis

Refractive errors refer to the problems of vision that make it difficult to see clearly. It is a common vision issue. Many people experience these problems of eye vision but they do not know about it. That is the reason eye exams are considered important.

Your eye doctor examines your eyes well. If he diagnosed you with a refractive error then he might recommend you a lens or eyeglasses to see clearly. There are four types of refractive errors that are given below.

  • Nearsightedness Or Myopia: It makes far objects blurry for you.
  • Farsightedness Or Hyperopia: It makes the objects that are nearby blurry.
  • Astigmatism: It makes nearby and far objects distorted and blurry.
  • Presbyopia: Older and middle-aged adults with this condition cannot see the close things clearly.

Symptoms Of Refractive Errors

A common symptom of refractive errors is blurry vision. Other symptoms are given below.

  • Hazy vision
  • Double vision
  • Squinting
  • Headaches
  • Seeing a halo or glare around bright lights
  • Eye strain (when your eyes feel sore or tired)
  • Trouble concentrating when looking at computer or reading anything

Some people do not focus on the symptoms of refractive errors. It is important to go to an eye doctor for a regular eye exam. Your doctor makes sure that you see the objects around you clearly.

You might require a prescription if you cannot see objects clearly with contact lenses or glasses. Discuss it with your eye doctor that you are still experiencing the symptoms after using eyeglasses or contact lenses. Get an eye exam if you are experiencing issues with your vision.

Risks For Developing Refractive Errors

Anyone can experience the problem of refractive errors. But you are at risk of developing these errors if your family members wear contact lenses or glasses. Most refractive error types appear in childhood like nearsightedness.

Presbyopia is common in adults aged 40 years or above. Talk to your eye doctor about the risk of refractive errors. Discuss the appointments scheduled with your doctor to improve your eye condition.

Causes Of Refractive Errors

Following are the main causes of refractive errors.

  • Length Of Eyeball: When your eyeball grows too short or long then you may develop the problem of refractive errors.
  • Issues With Cornea Shape: Cornea is the outer layer of your eye. Problems with this layer might lead to refractive errors.
  • Lens Aging: Lens is the inner part of your eye that helps you to focus on certain objects. Problems with the lens put you at the risk of developing refractive errors.

Diagnosis Of Refractive Errors

Checking for refractive errors is a part of a comprehensive exam of your eye. It is painless and simple. Your doctor asks you to read certain letters that are far away and up close.

Then he will prescribe you some eye drops which dilate your pupil. It helps to examine your eyes for certain eye problems.


Eyeglasses and contact lenses are used for the correction of refractive errors. Doctors may also do surgery to fix these errors.


Eyeglasses are a safe and simple way to fix refractive errors. The doctor prescribes you the right eyeglass lenses that provide you the clearest vision.


Contact lenses sit on your eye surface and help you to correct refractive errors. The doctor recommends you the right lenses that fit in your eye. These lenses help you to see clearly. Your doctor also advises you to clean and wear the lenses safely.


Some surgeries like laser eye surgery alter the shape of the cornea in your eye in order to fix refractive errors. Your doctor provides you information about the surgery and helps you to make a decision about it if the surgery is safe and right for you.

Discuss your eye problems with your doctor so he can plan the best treatment for you. Do not forget the following tips.

  • Visit your doctor on a frequent basis to have an eye exam.
  • Tell your doctor if you are facing issues with contact lenses or glasses or if your vision becomes worse
  • Encourage your family members to have an eye exam for refractive errors because these issues run in families

Light rays pass to different objects and refraction refers to the blending of these rays. The cornea bends the rays of light to concentrate them on your retina. When your eye shape alters, it alters the bending and focusing of light rays.

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